Dr. A. R. Kemal is currently the Director of the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, Pakistan. He also is President of the Pakistan Society of Development Economists. Prior to his appointment as Director of PIDE he worked as a Chief Economist for the Government of Pakistan, a Joint Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance, and with the Planning Commission of Pakistan. Dr. Kemal completed his Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Manchester, UK. He has researched topics that are critical for a developing country such as Pakistan. Research areas include: Macroeconomic Policies; Structural Adjustment Policies; Trade; Agriculture Taxation; Environment; Poverty and Income Distribution; Labor and Manpower including Child Labor; Human Resource Development; International Economics; Industrial Economics; Protection, Privatization, Fiscal and Monetary Policies; and Resource Mobilization within an Islamic Framework. Dr. Kemal is the author/co-author/co-editor of seven books and 140 research articles (published in national and international journals). Dr. Kemal has been actively involved in national economic policymaking. He has been a member of various task forces, advisory boards, and government committees. He is on the advisory boards of various economic journals. He also has represented Pakistan in international economic research forums. Keeping in view the importance of teaching and training, he has taught Ph.D., M. Phil and Masters classes at Quaid-i-Azam University and at International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan. He also has taught courses in Economics at the Foreign Services Academy and the Foreign Trade Institute.