Peter Mathias (born 10 January 1928) is a British economic historian. He attended Colston's School and Bristol Grammar School where he became interested in history. In December 1945, he applied for a scholarship at King's College, Cambridge; instead he won an Exhibition at Jesus College, Cambridge during Summer 1946. However the college demanded that those coming up from school should have done military service before they arrived so he spent two years in the army as a conscript.
He was Fellow of Queens’ College, Cambridge from 1955 to 1968. He was Chichele Professor of Economic History at the University of Oxford and Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and then Master of Downing College, Cambridge from 1987 to 1995.
He is also the author of “The Brewing Industry in England, 1700-1830” (1959) and “The Transformation of England (1979).