The destabilising potential of Kosovo remains largely intact. The underlying cause of the crisis has not yet been addressed. The Kosovo conflict is not a dispute over power or form of government. It is a dispute over control of territory: a contest between Yugoslavia's sovereignty and Kosovo's independence. The United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the NATO-led forces (KFOR) arrived in June 1999 to scenes of chaos. By October 2000, when the first-ever free and fair municipal elections were held in the territory, the UN administration had succeeded in establishing a modicum of stability. The unresolved problems remained daunting: the inherent ambiguities and contradictions of the UN mandate; the diametrically opposed aspirations of the Kosovo Albanians and Serbs; and continued vengeful violence by Albanians. But UNMIK and KFOR could point to one most critical - albeit fragile - accomplishment. They had finally won the confidence and cooperation of both Kosovo Albanians and Serbs. Maintaining that confidence will be a difficult challenge, requiring a close study of the lessons of the first 18 months of international administration.