The authors have written an overview of 19 papers in a symposium devoted to an examination of the interaction between labor markets and adjustment. The purpose of their commentary is to draw general conclusions and policy lessons and to identify areas for further research.
The papers include 7 issue papers and 12 country studies (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, and Thailand). The country studies bring together a wealth of information that will be useful to researchers.
The evidence on real wages casts considerable doubt on theoretical concerns about aggregate real wage rigidity and labor market inflexibility as a hindrance to adjustment. Declines in real wages have been dramatic and often far greater than the fall in GDP. For some countries, the declines in real wages may have been large enough to have aggregated demand effects that inhibit recovery. The studies also discuss the consequences of labor market adjustment on income distribution, gender, and human capital. The conclusions here are less clear-cut. The issue papers highlight complexities that point to country-specific answers. While real wage declines will worsen poverty, improvement in the rural-urban terms of trade during adjustment will have the opposite effect. Similarly, while employment shrinkages are likely to affect women adversely, a high female-labor intensity of tradables can serve as a countervailing force.
Dipak Mazumdar is Senior Research Associate, Munk Centre for International Studies at the University of Toronto, Canada. He is the author of numerous publications on development economics. His co-authored book, with Ata Mazaheri, The African Manufacturing Firm was also published by Routledge in 2003.
Dr. Susan Horton is Professor of Economics, and during 2008-09 is a Visiting Scientist at the Micronutrient Initiative. She received her BA from Cambridge, and her Masters and PhD from Harvard, and specializes in health, nutrition and labour market issues in developing countries. She has worked in over 20 developing countries, and has consulted for the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, several UN agencies, International Development Research Centre, etc. She served as Associate Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science, Chair of the Department of Social Science and Interim Dean at University of Toronto at Scarborough, and as Vice-President Academic at Laurier.
Ravi Kanbur is T. H. Lee Professor of World Affairs, International Professor of Applied Economics and Management, and Professor of Economics at Cornell University. He holds an appointment tenured both in the Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and in the Department of Economics in the College of Arts and Sciences.
He holds a bachelor's degree in economics from the University of Cambridge and a doctorate in economics from the University of Oxford. He has taught at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Essex, Warwick, Princeton and Columbia.
Ravi Kanbur has served on the staff of the World Bank, as Economic Adviser, Senior Economic Adviser, Resident Representative in Ghana, Chief Economist of the African Region of the World Bank, and Principal Adviser to the Chief Economist of the World Bank. He has also served as Director of the World Bank's World Development Report.
Professor Kanbur's main areas of interest are public economics and development economics. His work spans conceptual, empirical, and policy analysis. He is particularly interested in bridging the worlds of rigorous analysis and practical policy making. His vita lists over 200 publications, covering topics such as risk taking, inequality, poverty, structural adjustment, debt, agriculture, and political economy. He has published in the leading economics journals such as American Economic Review, Journal of Political Economy, Review of Economic Studies, Journal of Economic Theory, and Economic Journal.
The honors he has received include the Quality of Research Discovery Award of the American Agricultural Economics Association and an Honorary Professorship at the University of Warwick.
Личен сайт: http://kanbur.dyson.cornell.edu/