James M. Buchanan
In his foreword, Robert D. Tollison identifies the main objective of Geoffrey Brennan and James M. Buchanan’s The Reason of Rules: “. . . a book-length attempt to focus the energies of economists...
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Автор(и) : Karl Pearson
Издател : Adamant Media Corporation
Място на издаване : London, UK
Година на издаване : 2006
ISBN : 978-0-54389-021-4
Брой страници : 493
Език : английски
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The Grammar of Science is a book by Karl Pearson first published in hardback in 1892. In 1900, the second edition, published by Adam & Charles Black, appeared. The third, revised, edition was also published by Adam & Charles Black in 1911. It was recommended by Einstein to his friends of the Olympia Academy. Several themes were covered in this book that later became part of the theories of Einstein and other scientists, such as:
the relatively of motion to a frame of reference (fixed stars),
the equivalence of ""matter"" and energy,
physics as geometry,
the non-existence of the ether,
the importance of creative imagination rather than mere fact-gathering,
wrinkles in space,
molecular relative position and motion, and
motion of corpuscles as relative motion in a field.
The book is a major statement of the language, method, and concepts of the physical sciences, this volume traces the history of experimental investigation and efforts of philosophic minds to state and organize their findings.
This Elibron Classics book is a facsimile reprint of a 1892 edition by Walter Scott, London.
"THE discussions in my first two chapters have turned upon the nature of the method and the material of modern science. The material of science corresponds, we have seen, to all the constructs and concepts of the mind. Certain parts of this material, namely, constructs associated with immediate sense-impressions, we project outwards and speak of as physical facts or phenomena; others, which are obtained by the mental processes of isolation and co-ordination from stored sense-impressions, we are accustomed to speak of as mental facts or concepts.
In the case of both these classes of facts, the scientific method is the sole path by which we can attain to knowledge. The very word knowledge, indeed, only applies to the product of the scientific method in this field. Other methods, here or elsewhere, may lead to fantasy, as that of the poet or of the metaphysician, to belief or to superstition, but never to knowledge. As to the scientific method, we saw in our first chapter that it consists in the careful and often laborious classification of facts, in the comparison of their relationships and sequences, and finally in the discovery by aid of the disciplined imagination of a brief statement or formula, which in a few words resumes a wide range of facts."
Karl Pearson, Fellow of the Royal Society (1857 – 1936) was an influential English mathematician, biometrician, and statistician. Pearson obtained his PhD (supervised by Galton) from Cambridge UK in 1879, joining the faculty of UCL, where he was appointed as Professor of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics in 1884. In 1890 he added the title of Gresham Lecturer in Geometry. It was not until 1893 that Pearson started publishing articles on statistics. By that time he already had a hundred publications to his name (including a number on German history and folklore). His first statistical work was entitled The Chances of Death and Other Studies in Evolution, and much of his subsequent work on statistical theory had a similar focus. During the period 1895–8 he presented a sequence of papers on correlation and in 1900 he proposed the chi-squared test. He founded the journal Biometrika in 1901 and was Editor until his death, when his son took over. In 1911 he was appointed Professor of Eugenics (the study of human evolution), a post he held until 1933. He was elected FRS in 1896 and FRSE in 1934.
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