This monograph presents the fundamental concepts of competition polic and surveys antitrust practice in the United States, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Sweden, Australia, thre Republic of Korea, Spain and the EEC. While the German and the American systems have served as models for antitrust legislation and administration, these nations have adopted and modified particular features to suit national circumstances and objectives. By illustrating and comparing the strengths and weaknesses of different antitrust approaches, the paper provides valuable information for the design and implementation of competition policy in developing economies.
The decade of the 1980s witnessed a world-wide trend towards economic liberalization, the opening of markets, and the encouragement of trade, as many developed and developing nations bagan to emphasize market and distribution of goods and services. Competition policy supports economic liberalization by encouraging and sometimes requiring independent buyers and sellers to compete. That is why during the 1980s virtually every developed nation strengthened its competition laws while some countries enacted new laws designed to ensure thath barriers to trade and competition, once removed by the state, would not be resurrected by private action. By surveying the practices of ten nations and the EEC, this paper strives to illustrate the fundamental concepts and practical aspcets of competition policy.
Roger Alan Boner
Roger Alan Boner is a staff economist with the Antitrust Division, Bureau of Economics, U.S. Federal and Trade Commission, Washington, D.C.
Reinald Krueger is Head of Unit in the Information Society and Media Directorate-General of the European Commission and responsible for the Article 7 Consultation Mechanism on national regulatory measures in the electronic communications sector. Reinald started his career in the European Commission in 1995. He worked in the Industry Directorate-General on trade and industrial policy related tasks (until October 2000) and the Competition Directorate-General (until September 2008). In the latter, he was Deputy Head of the “Antitrust Telecoms” unit and Case manager of major antitrust telecoms cases under Article 82 of EC Treaty.
Before he joined the Commission, Reinald was Head of the Research Group “Industrial Economics and Competition Policy” at one of the leading German economics research institutes, the HWWA-Institute in Hamburg. In 1989, he was a Consultant with the US antitrust authority Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and in 1990 a Competition Expert to the World Bank. Reinald is an economist by training and author of 34 publications in the areas of industrial economics, competition policy and transition economics.